Notes and Sources 2
N.B: The notes/sources below can be accessed individually by clicking on the small, superscripted numbers found with the relevant text throughout this web-site. The 'return' link at the end of each individual note/source will take you back whence you came. Some of the superscripted numbers are followed by a small letter 'n'; this denotes a 'note' as opposed to a mere 'source'. (Internet Explorer users beware: you may not always be 'taken to' or 'returned to' precisely the designated location on the page: for accurate results every time - use Netscape.)

Giving sources relating to Elizabeth Gaskell's 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë' presents a problem: there are so many different editions of this book, it is pointless giving page numbers. In this case I have tried to indicate where the information is located by giving the approximate distance through the relevant chapter (i.e. a quarter way through CH.5). In some cases I have stated the information's proximity to a dated letter - as all letters in the book are presented in date order, and are easy to locate.

BPM = Brontë Parsonage Museum (library).

36) Charlotte's letter to Ellen Nussey, dated 21 December 1839. Gaskell, 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë', chapter VIII (near the end of chapter). Also see Barker, 'The Brontës', p.318; and Jane O'Neill, 'The World of the Brontës', p.33. (return)

37) Gaskell, 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë', CH. 5 (approx. 1/3 way through chapter). Also see Barker, 'The Brontës', p.151/152. Also see Gerin, 'Anne Brontë - A Biography', p.50. (return)

38) Gaskell, 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë', CH. 5 (a little over 1/3 way through chapter). Also see Harrison and Stanford, 'Anne Brontë - Her Life and Work', p.27. Also see Gerin, 'Anne Brontë - A Biography', p.53. (return)

39) This diary paper is presented in full, in Barker, 'The Brontës', p.220; Gerin, 'Anne Brontë - A Biography', p.68/69; and in Harrison and Stanford, 'Anne Brontë - Her Life and Work', p.34. Also see 'The Anne and Emily Diaries' - this site - accessed from 'Main Page'. (return)

40) The uncorrected quote from Ellen's notes reads: 'Anne played also but she preferred soft harmonies - she sang a little her voice was 'weak but' very sweet but in tone.' Ellen Nussey, reminiscences; 1871. BPM. (return)

41) Most information on this page, including the Parsonage map, was obtained from two articles provided by the BPM: 1) Kellet, J. Haworth Parsonage, The Bronte Society 1977 pp20 + 22; and 2) The Brontë Parsonage Garden - no other info given. (return)

42) Harrison and Stanford, 'Anne Brontë - Her Life and Work', p.113. (return)

43) For this section, and more details of the Parsonage interior, see Barker, 'The Brontës', p.99/100. (return)

44) For many years, Brontë scholars have speculated and argued over what the real cause of Charlotte's death was. On her death certificate it is recorded as 'Phthisis', which is a rather vague term - indicating a general wasting condition. The condition was often associated with tuberculosis, and this has led to many concluding that Charlotte had ultimately died of T.B., just has her siblings had done. However, a medical authority has recently assessed all the recorded symptoms, and diagnosed Charlotte's death as being caused by 'Hyperemesis Gravidarun'. A good account of this is given in Juliet Barker's notes: 'The Brontës', p.967 - note 96. (return)

45) Gaskell, 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë', Ch.7 (approx. 1 page of text before the end of the chapter). (return)

46) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.530. (return)

47) Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.124: also Harrison and Stanford, 'Anne Brontë - Her Life and Work', p.97: also Gerin, 'Anne Brontë - A Biography', p.279. Strangely, Mrs. Gaskell claims that it was Charlotte who made this comment - see Gaskell, 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë' - letter dated March 31 1846 - a little under half-way through CH.14. (return)

48) Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.170. (return)

49) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.404. (return)

50) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.325. (return)

51) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.366. Also Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.62/63. (return)

52) Barker, 'The Brontës', p.404. (return)

53) Today, this establishment is much expanded (to the left and rear - with respect to these pictures): it has become a residential school for severely handicapped children, and been re-named Hollybank School. See Alexander and Sellars, 'The Art of the Brontës', p.41/42, p.191, and p.399 for more details of the school and the several sketches of it. (return)

54) Clement Shorter, 'The Brontës and Their Circle'. The prize was a book - Watt's On The Improvement of the Mind. Winifred Gerin suggests that this choice of book for a 16 year old girl indicates 'that Miss Wooler saw in Anne a very serious-minded young person' and 'she seems never to have penetrated the extreme reserve behind which the shy girl hid.' - Gerin, 'Anne Brontë - A Biography', p.86; also see Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.51. (return)

55) 'John Firth Franks to George Moore Smith': see Barker, 'The Brontës', p.252, and p.886 - note 93. While staying with the Franks, Anne and Charlotte also met one of Charlotte's former school friends, Amelia Walker, and her family. The Walkers invited the Brontë girls to visit and spend a day with them at their home, Lascelles Hall (also in Huddersfield): Anne and Charlotte accepted, and the event took place on the following Tuesday. The visit to Lascelles Hall, Edward Chitham suggests, was Anne's first acquaintance with the type of society she later re-created in her novels.

The Huddersfield vicarage has since been demolished, but the church (St. Paul's) building, remains; though it is now used only as a concert hall, and stands on the Huddersfield University Campus. Lascelles Hall stands on Lascelles Hall Road in the southern area of Huddersfield - about a mile from the university: it is currently a residential home for the elderly. Other information on Anne and Charlotte's visit to the Franks at Huddersfield can be found in Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.47 - 49. (return)

56) Chitham, 'The Poems of Anne Brontë', p.5. (return)

57) Harrison and Stanford, 'Anne Brontë - Her Life and Work', p.52. (return)

58) Blake Hall was demolished in 1954, and the site is now occupied by a modern housing estate: several street names commemorate the Hall, its owners, and their famous governess. - see Barker, 'The Brontës', p.307 & p.895 - note 80. Also see 'The Blake Hall Estate Today' - this site (After following the 'return' link at the end of this note/source - follow the link: 'The Blake Hall Estate Today' - found a little lower down that page. (return)

59) The mode by which Anne's employment with the Inghams terminated is not known for certain, but it is generally accepted that she was dismissed, as this is the way Agnes Grey parts company with the Bloomfields in Anne's novel. It is well known that this section of her book is closely based on her own experiences with the Inghams, and there seems little doubt that this is the way Anne's employment at Blake Hall came to its end. (return)

60) The girls attending Mirfield Church is confirmed in a letter Charlotte sent to Ellen Nussey on 26 September 1836 - see Barker, 'The Brontës', p.282 & p.890 - note 86. Also see Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.45 & p.54. (return)

61) This cross also carries the inscription of his wife: 'AET AT 48 bJAN. 1888'. (return)

61b) Both these pictures currently reside at Mirfield Parish Church: I was kindly allowed to photograph them. (return)

62) Gerin, 'Anne Brontë - A Biography', p.198. This statement was probably made in Charlotte's letter to Ellen Nussey dated 7 December 1854 - see Alexander and Sellars, 'The Art of the Brontës', p.388/389 for this, and more information about the dog and the painting. (return)

63) Ellen Nussey, reminiscences; 1871. BPM. Also see Barker, 'The Brontës', p.592. Also see Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.184. (return)

64) With reference to the new picture, the pillar located centrally beneath the bay window does not appear to be the same as the corresponding one in the old picture; however, it looks to be identical to the one on the extreme left of the old picture. This leaves one to wonder - has that particular pillar been moved? or, alternatively, has the re-structuring of the buildings been so extensive that the entrance (opening) has been re-located by about 10 yards? (return)

65) Based on the fact that this place would be well known to Anne from her visits to York and Scarborough with the Robinsons (coaches for Scarborough left from just outside this building); and the fact that it was her choice of stay en-route to Scarborough on her final visit with Charlotte and Ellen Nussey (even though they travelled by rail throughout this journey). Also that the Brontës are known to have generally returned to lodgings where they had previously stayed - as shown by their several stays at the 'Chapter Coffee House' in London - and Anne's return to Wood's Lodgings, Scarborough, in 1849. (return)

66) Gaskell, 'The Life of Charlotte Brontë', chapter 16 (approx. 5 pages after letter dated May 3rd. 1848); also Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.162. (return)

67) One book that displays this map suggests it was drawn for the benefit of Charlotte and Anne when they visited London to pay a call on their publishers in July 1848; however, I think this is unlikely as Charlotte had already stayed at the Coffee House on at least a few previous occasions - and as it was 'just around the corner' from St. Paul's Cathedral, it is unlikely she would experience any difficulty in finding it with Anne. When Emily and Charlotte first stayed there, en route to the first Brussels visit (1842), Patrick accompanied them, so it would not have been needed at that time. The map may have been drawn for Charlotte's second visit to Brussels (1843) - just to be certain she would find her way there (particularly considering she was alone on this occasion). (return)

68) Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.149/150. (return)

69) Chitham, 'A Life of Anne Brontë', p.141/142/144/145/149/150/151. Also Harrison and Stanford, 'Anne Brontë - Her Life and Work', p.125. (return)

70) 'At the time, a married woman had no independent legal existence, apart from her husband (c.f. Caroline Norton's English Laws for Women). She could not own her own property, sue for divorce, or control custody of her children. If she attempted to live apart from him, her husband had the right to reclaim her. If she took their child with her, she was liable for kidnapping. In living off her own earnings, she was held to be stealing her husband's property, since any income she made was legally his.' Quoted from: Mary Mark Ockerbloom, 'Anne Brontë (1820 - 1849)' (an Internet biography of Anne - accessed at:, Chapter titled 'Mirth and Mourning'. Also see Langland - 'Anne Brontë - The Other One', p.119. (return)

(Continued on Notes and Sources - page 3)

BPM = Brontë Parsonage Museum (library).

Copyright © 1999 Michael Armitage

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